When the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran took place, its overriding objective was social justice achieved through helping the poor and ensuring political freedom. However, after almost four decades, the income of low-wage earners nationwide has plummeted as the wealthy have grown wealthier.
Academic research on Iranian managers is scarce, mainly because of the lack of business ties with foreigners and longstanding international sanctions. Relatively little is known about how Iranian managers, particularly those at smaller enterprises, perceive business collaboration with outsiders. In order to address this knowledge gap, we have conducted a major survey among Iranian managers in the industrial sector.